Industry research
Company research
Country research


Databases for business information
Database Description
ABI/INFORM Collection Combined search of ABI/INFORM Dateline, Global, and Trade & Industry. View Full Description
ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry Source for trade and industry news covering companies, products, executives, and trends. View Full Description
Accounting, Tax & Banking Collection Index and full-text collection on accounting and taxation. View Full Description
American Consumer Culture: Market Research & American Business, 1935-1965 Market research reports and supporting documents regarding the American consumer boom of the mid-20th century. View Full Description
Banking Information Database Index and full-text collection for banking and financial industry information. View Full Description
Business Premium Collection Search tool for business and management publications. View Full Description
Business Source Complete Includes scholarly journals, books, case studies, marketing research and other business and economics material. View Full Description
Cabell's Contact and submission information for scholarly publishing in various business subjects. View Full Description
Canada's Information Resource Centre Several Canadian reference resources in one search interface. View Full Description
Canadian Business & Current Affairs Database Provides access to Canadian journals, magazines and news resources on all topics. View Full Description
Canadian Business & Current Affairs Database: Business Index for scholarly, professional and popular literature on Canadian business, finance and economics. View Full Description
Canadian Census Analyzer Census Profiles tables by census geography or by census year, plus Microdata Files and Postal Code Conversion Files. View Full Description
Canadian Company Capabilities Profiles and specialized directories for Canadian companies. View Full Description
Canadian Newsstream Full text of many Canadian newspapers. View Full Description
CANSIM @ CHASS Canadian socio-economic statistical data. For advanced users. View Full Description
CANSIM @ Statistics Canada Canadian socio-economic statistical data. View Full Description
CARDonline Canadian advertising rates and data for media View Full Description
CBR: Canadian Business Resource Information on Canadian companies and corporations, including biographical sketches of senior executives. View Full Description
CFMRC/TSX Database Annual Update Toronto Stock Exchange historical data hosted on the U of T CHASS platform. View Full Description
Conference Board of Canada: E-LIBRARY Research reports on public policy, economics and management. View Full Description
CPA Canada Standards and Guidance Collection (CPACHB) Provides access to CICA's Accounting Handbook and additional resources. View Full Description
CPI.Q Index for Canadian academic journals and popular magazines View Full Description
CRSP Databases: CRSP US Stock and CRSP Historical Indexes Security prices and other historical data for more than 20,000 companies from the New York Stock Exchange, AMEX and NASDAQ. View Full Description
Datastream An international historical financial database. View Full Description
EconLit Citations, with selected abstracts, of articles, books, book chapters, dissertations, reviews, conferences and working papers. View Full Description
EDGAR The US Security and Exchange Commission’s database of public company information View Full Description
Emerald Insight Collection of books and journals published by Emerald, chiefly for management and technology. View Full Description
Encyclopedia of Global Brands Origins, marketing, development and the future of well-known brands. View Full Description
Entrepreneurship Database Index and full text collection of resources, including video clips, business cases and publications, regarding the study and practice of entrepreneurship View Full Description
Europa World Contains political and economic information and selected data on countries and organizations worldwide. View Full Description
Factiva A full-text resource with news, business information and journal articles drawn from almost 9000 worldwide sources, including Globe and Mail, Toronto Star and the KW Record. View Full Description
Financial Performance Data Industry Canada's performance benchmark data for financial planning of start-up and established small and medium sized businesses. View Full Description
Financial Performance Indicators for Canadian Business NAICS key financial ratios in downloadable files organized by year, region and operating revenue. View Full Description
IBISWorld Industry market research reports. View Full Description
IIAC: Letter from the President "Editorials" from the president and CEO of the "Investment Industry Association of Canada". View Full Description
Industry Canada Reports, statistics and other government publications on business and technology topics. View Full Description
Industry Norms & Key Business Ratios, 2011 edition (via CHASS) Contains industry norms, starting in 2000, with twice yearly updates (Spring & Fall). View Full Description
IntelliConnect Platform providing access to Canada Income Tax Guide, Dominion Tax Cases, and Tax Planning for Small Business. View Full Description
International Financial Statistics Access microdata via TriUniversity Data Resources View Full Description
JSTOR Current and back issues of journals in arts and sciences. View Full Description
Key Business Ratios Industry benchmarking data for public and private companies. View Full Description
LexisNexis Academic Full-text documents for international news, business, legal research, and key people in the news. View Full Description
Market Share Reporter Presents comparative business statistics with an immediate overview of companies, products and services and cites original sources View Full Description
MarketLine: Advantage A collection of company, industry and country information, including over 200 countries and major industry sectors. View Full Description
Mergent Online Provides business and financial information on more than 10,000 public companies around the world. View Full Description
NetAdvantage Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys and the Register of Corporations, Directors, and Executives. View Full Description
odesi Repository of socio-economic survey, census, and polling data from Statistics Canada, Ipsos Reid, Gallup, etc. View Full Description
Passport Euromonitor's market research data for countries and companies. View Full Description
Political Risk Yearbook Country reports with political and economic information. View Full Description
ProQuest Historical Annual Reports Full-text company reports. View Full Description
Regional Business News Index of regional business publications throughout the U.S. View Full Description
RMAU Online: Search Statement Studies Financial composite data for U.S. companies (and some non-U.S.). Also known as Annual Statement Studies. View Full Description
Scholars Portal Journals Several thousand full-text electronic journals; especially strong in sciences and social sciences. View Full Description
Scott's Directories Scott's Canadian Directories. Select "Account Login" and log out when finished. View Full Description
SEDAR Securities filed electronically with the Canadian Securities Administrators. View Full Description
ThomasNet Search directory by product or company for U.S. and Canadian information. View Full Description
Thomson ONE Full-text database of investment research reports. (Formerly known as Investext Plus.) View Full Description
Web of Science Core Collection Citation indexes for the arts & humanities, the social sciences, and the sciences. View Full Description
World Factbook Information on countries of the world prepared by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. View Full Description
WRCERG: Waterloo Region Collaborative Economic Research Group website Waterloo region economic data & analysis View Full Description
WRDS: Wharton Research Data Services Contains company finances as well as equity and fixed income data, and is intended for in-depth financial and accounting research. View Full Description

Industry information

Canada only:

Industry Canada
Includes industry profiles. Enter industry keyword in search box.
Associations Canada
This resource provides a listing of Canadian Associations. Associations may provide detailed information on their respective industry. N.B. Be sure to uncheck all databases, with the exception of Associations Canada.

Canada, U.S. and international:


Contains Canadian and US Industry Reports, iExpert Summaries, and Business Environment Profiles. Industry market research reports contain such information as trends, statistics & analysis on market size, market share of major companies, industry growth rates, and key external forces affecting supply and demand.

ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry

Contains Business Monitor International (BMI) Industry Reports and First Research Industry Reports. To access the BMI Industry Reports, click the "Browse" link at the top, then select the link for BMI Industry Reports under Industry and Market Research. You can start browsing either by industry or by location. To find country-specific industry forecasts, click the "+" sign next to business forecasts to expand options. These BMI quarterly reports contain either 5 or 10-year forecasts.


Provides industry reports and analysis including Porter's Five Forces analysis. Enter in keyword. Select "Industries" from drop-down menu. Learn how to use Marketline to find Five Forces analysis from this video tutorial.
S&P NetAdvantage
Includes Industry Surveys. Click the Industries tab.
LexisNexis Academic
Contains select industry reports. On main page, click "Search by Content Type", then under "Companies", click on "Dossier(Company, Executive, & Industry)". Click on the "Industry" tab. Run a search by industry keyword or SIC code. Can also browse SIC code industry hierarchy. On Industry Overview page, click "Reports".
Thomson One
Covers global company and industry research and forecasts. Reports are from key brokerage firms and consultants. To search for industry reports, go to the "Screening & Analysis" tab > "Research" > "Research Search". You may search by SIC, NAICS or text. * Date default set to last 90 days. ** You must use Internet Explorer for full functionality of the database. Learn how to use Thomson One to find industry analyst reports from this video tutorial.
Passport GMID
Offers industry/market analysis and forecasting. Select an industry from drop-down "Industries" menu or enter keyword in search box.

Industrial classification codes

Many government websites, and some databases, organize business information using an industry classification system, with a specific code for each industry. You may find it helpful to look up the code for your industry as part of your research.

Note: If you are researching a very specific or very new industry, it may not be included in these industry classification systems.

The two most common industry classification systems are NAICS and SIC. Both are hierarchical, organized by broad industry categories, each divided into more specific industries.

NAICS (North American Industry Classification System)
Developed in 1997, by Canada, the United States and Mexico. Industry codes are from 2-6 digits long.
SIC (Standard Industrial Classification)
An older industry classification system. NAICS was intended to replace SIC, however, some resources still use SIC codes to classify information.

Industry financials and ratios

Canada only:

D&B's Canadian Industry Norms & Key Business Ratios
Comprises of a set of business ratios, measured as relationships between companies' balance sheet and income statement categories, across industries as per Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes.
Financial Performance Indicators
Contains key financial ratios by industry groupings compiled from the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS 2007).

Canada, U.S. and International:

Captures industry averages and ratios. Click on the Companies/Markets tab on the top of the screen and then select Industry. Choose an industry.
E-Statement Studies
Contains composite financial data, including ratios, on major types of industries. Arranged by NAICS code, this work makes it possible to compare one company's performance relative to other companies in the same industry. Search for industries using either their name (or partial name) or by NAICS code.
Mergent (D&B) Key Business Ratios
Features 14 key business ratios for public and private companies in 800 lines of business in the U.S. and Canada. Search data by SIC and NAICS code, line of business, asset range and year. Input financial data and instantly compare any balance sheet with industry benchmarks.
S&P NetAdvantage
Includes industry ratios. Use the Industry Surveys drop-down menu on the right hand side of the screen to select your industry.
Offers valuation ratios that give industry and sector comparisons by company. Search and display your company then scroll down and click on "More from Reuters". A new page will open, click on "Financials".
Provides key industry financial ratios. Click on the "Investing" tab and select "Industries". Choose an industry from "Complete Industry List". Key ratios are found under "Industry Statistics".

Industry statistics

Industry Canada
Contains "Canadian Industry Statistics" that present and analyze industry data on a number of economic indicators using the latest annual data sources from Statistics Canada.
Provides access to the data series from which many of the Statistics Canada publications are derived.
International Trade Association
Provides trade statistics for the U.S. Of special note is the U.S. Industry Sector Data section under "Data & Analysis".
CANSIM @ Statistics Canada
Public website for Statistics Canada data. Note: additional industry statistics are available through CANSIM.

Industry/trade journals and newspapers

Trade journals and newspapers can be found in the following databases:

Industry associations

Associations Canada
This resource provides a listing of Canadian Associations. N.B. Be sure to uncheck all databases, with the exception of Associations Canada.

Canadian trade resources

Canada's Gateways
Includes information on Canada’s three main Gateways and Trade Corridors, as well as Foreign Trade Zones
Canadian International Merchandise Trade Database (1988-)
Detailed trade data using the Harmonized System (HS) classification of goods (based on the 6-digit commodity level)
Canadian Trade Commissioner Service
Contains international trade market reports
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
Provides useful Canadian trade facts
Trade Data Online
Generates customized reports on Canada and U.S. trade in goods with over 200 countries

Step 1: Is the company public or private?


  • Public companies issue securities which are traded on the open market (stock exchange or over-the-counter market). These companies must meet stringent reporting requirements set out by securities commissions/authorities, including the public disclosure of financial statements and reports discussing the state of the company.
  • Information on public companies is considerable and include everything from company profiles and history, financial statements, recent developments and corporate social responsibility.
  • Private companies do not issue shares that are publicly traded and as such are not mandated by securities commissions/authorities to report their financials and company information publicly.
  • Information on private companies is limited. You may find a profile, contact information, senior executives, brief business description, date of incorporation, and sometimes broad annual sales/revenue estimates that are self-reported.
  • Check for public filings on EDGAR (U.S.) or SEDAR (Canada).
    • If you find your company listed and can locate current filings, it will be PUBLIC.
    • If you cannot locate the company, it will most likely be PRIVATE.

Step 2: Finding public company information

Canada, U.S. and International:

  • Mergent Enter company name or ticker symbol in the search box then click "Go".
  • Marketline Enter company name in search box > select "Companies" from drop-down menu.
  • LexisNexis Academic Enter company name under the "Get Company Info" search then click "Go".
  • Hoover's Company Records (via ProQuest Entrepreneurship) Select ‘Full text from ProQuest Entrepreneurship’ and then enter the company name into the search bar, or select ‘Browse by company’. Once the desired company is located, select ‘Link to full text’ to be directed to its Hoover’s company profile page.

Step 2: Finding private company information

Step 3: Finding company financials

Mergent Online
Provides annual reports and company financials - i.e. income statements, cash flow statements. To run a company search, select the "Company Financials" tab > from the drop-down menu, select "Balance Sheet", "Income Statement", "Retained Earnings", "Cash Flow" or "All Sections" > click "Refresh". Adjust date range if needed. The data can be downloaded into Excel format.
Watch the video tutorial Company financials: Mergent Online.
Includes financial information such as balance sheets and cash flow. Select "Companies/Markets" > "Company" and enter a company name or symbol. Select "Financial Results" to choose various financial statements for the company in question.
S&P NetAdvantage
Comprises of detailed surveys of over 50 U.S. industries, coverage includes a financial review of an industry-specific company, i.e. income statement analysis of a broadcast/cable company. To access, click on the "Industries" tab at the top of the screen and select your industry from the drop down menu or use the drop down menu under "Quick Links – Industry Surveys" from the main page.
Thomson One
Contains company and stock financials and analysis. Enter company name or stock ticker symbol in the search box (upper left-hand corner) then click the "Go" button.** You must use Internet Explorer for full functionality of the database.
Hoover's Company Records (via ProQuest Entrepreneurship)
Contains profiles, including financials, for over 40,000 public and private companies worldwide; financial information for private companies is generally limited. To access, select ‘Full text from ProQuest Entrepreneurship’ and then enter the company name into the search bar, or select ‘Browse by company’ to browse companies alphabetically. Once the desired company is located, select ‘Link to full text’ to be directed to its Hoover’s company profile page.
Hoover’s IPO Records (via ProQuest Entrepreneurship)
Contains information on companies that have filed an initial public offering (IPO); such information includes IPO dates, pricing information, share information, underwriters, company exchange, business description, and contact details. To access, select ‘Full text from ProQuest Entrepreneurship’ and then enter the company name into the search bar, or browse specific issues according to date.

Step 4: Finding analyst reports

Thomson One
Provides analyst reports from investment banks and consulting firms. Enter company name or stock ticker symbol in the search box (upper left-hand corner) then click the "Go" button. Go to "Company Views" > "Research" > "Company Research"; or go to the "Screening & Analysis" tab > "Research" > "Research Search". **You must use Internet Explorer for full functionality of the database. Default is set to "Last 90 days".
Watch the video tutorial Analyst reports: Thomson One.
Lexis Nexis Academic
On main page, enter company name under the "Get Company Info" search then click "Go". Select appropriate company from list. Under "Reports" >"Financials", select "Analyst Reports".

Step 5: Finding SWOT analyses

Thomson One
Some analyst reports contain company SWOT analyses. Enter company name or stock ticker symbol in the search box (upper left-hand corner) then click the "Go" button. Next navigate to "Company Views" > "Research" > "Company Research". Select date range, choose "Title/text" from the drop-down menu and enter "SWOT" in text box. **You must use Internet Explorer for full functionality of the database. Date default is set to "Last 90 days".
Includes SWOT analyses for selected companies. Search for company report > SWOT analysis found in right-hand column of report.
Passport GMID
SWOTs for selected international companies are available in the Global Company Profiles. Run company search > scroll down the left side of the screen and click on "Company Profiles" (under "by Analysis").

Step 6: Finding company rankings

Canada only:

Report on Business, Top 1000 (Globe & Mail)

  • Located in the WLU Reference Shelves – 2nd Floor, call number HG4090 .R45
  • Ranks the 1000 largest publicly-traded companies in Canada; measured by assets and ranked according to their after-tax profits in their most recent fiscal year

Financial Post Magazine, FP500: Canada’s largest corporations

  • Located in the WLU Reference Shelves – 2nd Floor, call number HG4090.A1 F5
  • Ranks Canada’s 500 largest corporations by revenue, assets, and profitability, Profit 500

  • Ranks the fastest growing companies in Canada, by five-year revenue growth

U.S. and International:

Fortune, Fortune 500

  • U.S. companies are ranked by total revenues for their respective fiscal years
  • Also available in print: WLU Reference Shelves - 2nd Floor, call number HG4057 .A258

Forbes, Forbes Global 2000

  • Annual ranking of the world’s largest public companies, based on a composite score from equally-weighted measures of revenue, profits, assets, and market value.

Fortune, Global 500

  • Annual ranking of the largest corporations in the world, by total revenues.

Inc., Inc. 5000

  • Ranks the top 5000 fastest-growing private companies in the U.S.

Step 7: Finding market share information

What is market share?

  • The percentage (or portion) of sales of a product, company or brand in a given region or country
  • Used by companies to review their competitive performance from year to year
  • Not always readily available - you often have to piece together the information yourself from a variety of sources (e.g., newspaper & magazine articles, industry & company reports, web pages, personal contacts, etc.)

Market share resources:

For articles related to market share, search in ABI/Inform Complete and related ProQuest Business databases or Business Source Complete. Where possible use the company name AND the phrase "market share" or "brand share" when searching in article databases. Market share information may be available in special issues of trade journals - search ABI/Inform Trade & Industry.

Market Share Reporter
Provides some information on market share for Canadian products, companies and/or services but main focus is U.S. and International. Search by product, company name or industry classification codes.
Passport GMID
Produced by Euromonitor, Passport GMID provides data on market shares, brand shares and retail shares of companies and products globally or by country/region. Market share data is generally included in the "Market Data" section of industry reports.
Formerly Datamonitor 360, Marketline contains market share data of leading companies by industry. Market share data is found in industry reports, under "Market Segmentation".

How to calculate market share:

Basic country research

Key resources:

BBC News Country Profiles
Provides a quick guide to the economics, politics and history of countries and territories, including quick facts, profiles of political leaders, an overview of the media market and a chronology of key events.
Europa World Online
Covers political and economic information and selected data on countries and organizations worldwide. Select a country from the drop-down menu and hit "Go".
globalEDGE - Global Insights
Global Insights provides international business and trade information on over 200 countries, 50 U.S. states, as well as nearly two dozen industry sectors, and many of the world’s trade blocs. Under "Get globalEDGE Insights", select from one of the four options: "By Trade Bloc", "By country", "By State", or "By Industry".
LexisNexis Academic
Offers country analysis, country briefings, country risk guides. From main page, click "Search by Subject or Topic", then under "People, Places and Things", select the "Country Information". Type in country name in search box. Click on "Advanced Options" and select same country from the drop-down menu, specify date and select the sources you want to search then click "Apply". Click "Search".
Mergent Online
Provides country statistical data. Select a country from the drop down menu under "Country Profile" (found on the right side, under the calendar).
U.S. Department of Commerce: International Statistical Agencies
Provides links to national statistical agencies arranged alphabetically by country.
World Bank: World Development Indicators
The World Bank's principal data source on the global economy, including demographic, social, economic, financial, natural resources and environmental indicators for more than 200 countries and 18 country groups. First select your country by searching or browsing the country list. Then expand the "Series" to select individual variables. Finally, click "Time" at the bottom to select the year(s) for which you want statistics. View data as a table, chart or map by selecting an output icon at the top right.
World Factbook (CIA)
The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency provides country-specific information, including country profiles and select data.

Advanced country research (risk, cultural intelligence, etc.)

Key resources:

Find country forecasts in ABI/INFORM Complete, which contains the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) Country Finance and Forecast Reports. Once in the database, click the "Browse" link at the top, then select the link to the EIU Finance and Forecast Reports under Country Reports.* Scroll down and click on the link next to "forecasts." You can filter the results by country on the right under "Narrow results by."
*Additional country reports are available, including the Oxford Analytica Country Profiles.
Country and Regional Information
Canada. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Country Profiles
UK. Foreign & Commonwealth Office
Countries and Topics
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
International Monetary Fund: Country Information
Select a country from the alphabetical listing.
Includes country analysis - PESTLE. Type in country name then select "Countries" from drop-down menu beside the magnifying glass. Click the search icon.
Passport GMID
Includes demographic, economics and marketing statistics for 205 countries. Click on the "Economies" tab and select a topic or use the keyword search box (top right corner).

Country risk research:

Find Country Risk Assessments for 160 countries, along with information on payment methods, debt collection and insolvency trends. Select a country from the drop-down menu (middle of page) and click "OK."
On the search page, click on the "Source" field, search for "Economist Intelligence Unit" (EIU), then select "EIU - Risk Briefing". Select country of interest under the "Regions" field. Once country and source are chosen, click "Search".
Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR)
Published semi-annually by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
LexisNexis Academic
Offers country analysis, country briefings, country risk guides. From main page, click "Search by Content Type", then under "People, Places and Things", select the "Country Information". Type in country name in search box. Click on "Advanced Options" and select same country from the drop-down menu, specify date and select "PRS Risk Guide & Service" to search then click "Apply". Click "Search".
Watch the video tutorial Country risk: Lexis Nexis Academic
Passport GMID
Provides Risks and Vulnerabilities reports to assess the current economic situation across 85 core countries. To access the Country Briefings on Risks and Vulnerabilities, select Economy, Finance and Trade under the Economies tab at the top. Under Analysis Finder on the left, select Country Briefing from the drop-down menu. Then select a country from the drop-down menu (use the + sign to expand the options next to regions). Click "Go." See also the Business Environment reports.
Political Risk Yearbook
Includes all 100 of Political Risk Services' Country Reports, including political and economic risk analysis.
Worldwide Governance Indicators
"The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) project reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for 215 economies over the period 1996–2015, for six dimensions of governance: voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, control of corruption." Click "Interactive data access", then click the "Country Data Review" tab. Under "Worldwide Governance Indicators" select indicator, year and country.
World Investment and Political Risk
"World Investment and Political Risk examines general trends in the global economy and FDI, corporate perceptions of political risk and risk-mitigation strategies, as well as the latest developments in the Political Risk Insurance industry."

Cultural intelligence/business abroad:

Canada and International Trade
Canada. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Canadian Trade Commissioner Service
Canada. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Country Insights
Centre for Intercultural Learning, Canada. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade and is the country's "largest provider of intercultural and international training services for internationally-assigned government and private sector personnel." Select a country from the drop-down menu to find information on topics ranging from conversation styles to cultural stereotypes.
Doing Business
The World Bank Doing Business project provides measures of business regulations and their enforcement in 189 economies that allow for comparisons across countries and over time.
Canada Business Network. Government Services for Entrepreneurs
PKF: Doing Business in
PKF International Limited provides information about the financial, legal considerations that could affect business dealings within a particular country.
U.S. Commercial Service
U.S. Department of Commerce
World Values Survey
The World Values Survey is a global network of social scientists studying changing values and their impact on social and political life. It consists of nationally representative surveys conducted in almost 100 countries.

Additional data & statistics for business and finance

Canadian data:

Detailed Data & Statistics subject page

Time-series data and Census results. Updated daily, if data available.
TriUniversity Data Resources (TDR)
A large collection of Canadian and international data and statistical resources shared by the TriUniversity group of libraries.

Economic and Financial data:

E-Statement Studies
Contains composite financial data, including ratios, on major types of industries.
Dun & Bradstreet Industry Norms & Ratios
Comprises of a set of business ratios
Financial Performance Indicators
Provides key financial ratios by industry groupings
Mergent (D&B) Key Business Ratios
Provides immediate online access to competitive benchmarking data
OECD iLibrary
Statistical databases that offer statistics and data in a variety of subject areas
Large, comprehensive statistical database covering all countries of the world. Pulls together statistics from all the major UN sources.
World Bank: World Development Indicators
Development data from more than 200 countries
ILO statistics (LABORSTRA)
Access to data and metadata for over 200 countries or territories from LABORSTA, an International Labour Office database on labour statistics operated by the ILO Department of Statistics
IMF eLibrary
Includes Balance of Payments Statistics (BOPS), Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS), International Financial Statistics (IFS), and Government Finance Statistics (GFS)